Cerebral palsy is the most common disease in children associated with lifelong disability in many countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that traditional physiotherapy and rehabilitation therapies cannot alone cure cerebral palsy. Stem cell transplantation is an emerging therapy that has been applied in clinical trials for a variety of neurological diseases because of the regenerative and unlimited proliferative capacity of stem cells. In this review, we summarize the design schemes and results of these clinical trials. Our findings reveal great differences in population characteristics, stem cell types and doses, administration methods, and evaluation methods among the included clinical trials. Furthermore, we also assess the safety and efficacy of these clinical trials. We anticipate that our findings will advance the rational development of clinical trials of stem cell therapy for cerebral palsy and contribute to the clinical application of stem cells.
Cell therapy as a replacement for diseased or destroyed endogenous cells is a major component of regenerative medicine. Various types of stem cells are or will be used in clinical settings as autologous or allogeneic products. In this chapter, the progress that has been made to translate basic stem cell research into pharmaceutical manufacturing processes will be reviewed. Even if in public perception, embryonic stem (ES) cells and more recently induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells dominate the field of regenerative medicine and will be discussed in great detail, it is the adult stem cells that are used for decades as therapeutics. Hence, these cells will be compared to ES and iPS cells. Finally, special emphasis will be placed on the scientific, technical, and economic challenges of developing stem cell-based in vitro model systems and cell therapies that can be commercialized.
Stemedica Cell Technologies announced the launch of a phase 2b/3 clinical trial to assess the safety, efficacy and tolerability of a single IV injection of allogenic mesenchymal stem cells in patients with chronic ischemic stroke.
According to a release from the company, the multicenter, randomized, double-blind study is expected to enroll approximately 300 individuals, who will be divided into two cohorts and receive either a single injection of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells and standard treatment or placebo and standard treatment.
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one type of the most devastating cerebrovascular diseases worldwide, which causes high morbidity and mortality. However, efficient treatment is still lacking. Stem cell therapy has shown good neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect in ICH and is a promising treatment.
In this study, our aim was to review the therapeutic effects, strategies, related mechanisms and safety issues of various types of stem cell for ICH treatment. Numerous studies had demonstrated the therapeutic effects of diverse stem cell types in ICH. The potential mechanisms include tissue repair and replacement, neurotrophy, promotion of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, immunoregulation and anti-inflammation and so forth.
The microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS) can also influence the effects of stem cell therapy. The detailed therapeutic strategies for ICH treatment such as cell type, the number of cells, time window, and the routes of medication delivery, varied greatly among different studies and had not been determined.
Moreover, the safety issues of stem cell therapy for ICH should not be ignored. Stem cell therapy showed good therapeutic effect in ICH, making it a promising treatment. However, safety should be carefully evaluated, and more clinical trials are required before stem cell therapy can be extensively applied to clinical use.
This is the story of a little boy with a long name: Kamsiyochukwu Bryan Peter Ezenwa. “Kam-si-yọ-chukwu” is a traditional Igbo name, which translates to “exactly as I asked God”. The Igbo are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. Kamsiyochukwu and his family are from Nigeria, but they were living in India when he was diagnosed with Sickle Cell Anaemia at the age of two years old in 2013. Sickle Cell is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells. The red blood cells become sickle shaped, instead of round, and this prevents them from carrying oxygen properly. The sickle-shaped cells also tend to stick to each other, causing blockages in small blood vessels. Sickle cell patients are chronically fatigued from lack of adequate oxygen, and they have crises of pain and swelling from blocked blood vessels. Patients find themselves on a life-long regimen of blood transfusions, drugs to alter the shape of blood cells, and pain killers. Over the years, organ damage accumulates, so life expectancy is shortened. Kamsiyochukwu’s mother, Blessing Ezenwa, learned from her son’s doctors that a stem cell transplant from a sibling could stop his pain crises and cure his Sickle Cell. She gave birth to a second son in 2018 and stored his cord blood with Cordlife Sciences India, a cord blood bank that is part of the Cordlife Group and located near Kolkata. Then in January of 2020, Kamsiyochukwu underwent chemotherapy at Indraprastha Apollo Hospital in Delhi and next received a transplant of his baby brother’s cord blood stem cells. His mother says, “Since then till now, there is no crisis, no pain, no nothing, he is okay. We are back home in Nigeria.
A large number of clinical trials have shown stem cell therapy to be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Since the first transplantation into human patients, several stem cell types have been applied in this field, including bone marrow derived stem cells, cardiac progenitors as well as embryonic stem cells and their derivatives. However, results obtained from clinical studies are inconsistent and stem cell-based improvement of heart performance and cardiac remodeling was found to be quite limited. In order to optimize stem cell efficiency, it is crucial to elucidate the underlying mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects of stem cell transplantation. Based on these mechanisms, researchers have developed different improvement strategies to boost the potency of stem cell repair and to generate the “next generation” of stem cell therapeutics. Moreover, since cardiovascular diseases are complex disorders including several disease patterns and pathologic mechanisms it may be difficult to provide a uniform therapeutic intervention for all subgroups of patients. Therefore, future strategies should aim at more personalized SC therapies in which individual disease parameters influence the selection of optimal cell type, dosage and delivery approach.
Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive and uncontrolled gradual loss of motor neurons function or death of neuron cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and the mechanisms underlying their progressive nature remain elusive.Continue reading
Neurological disease encompasses a diverse group of disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems, which collectively are the leading cause of disease burden globally. The scope of treatment options for neurological disease is limited, and drug approval rates for improved treatments remain poor when compared with other therapeutic areas. Stem cell therapy provides hope for many patients, but should be tempered with the realisation that the scientific and medical communities are still to fully unravel the complexities of stem cell biology, and to provide satisfactory data that support the rational, evidence-based application of these cells from a therapeutic perspective. We provide an overview of the application of stem cells in neurological disease, starting with basic principles, and extending these to describe the clinical trial landscape and progress made over the last decade. Many forms of stem cell therapy exist, including the use of neural, haematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells. Cell therapies derived from differentiated embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are also starting to feature prominently. Over 200 clinical studies applying various stem cell approaches to treat neurological disease have been registered to date (Clinicaltrials.gov), the majority of which are for multiple sclerosis, stroke and spinal cord injuries. In total, we identified 17 neurological indications in clinical stage development. Few studies have progressed into large, pivotal investigations with randomised clinical trial designs. Results from such studies will be essential for approval and application as mainstream treatments in the future.
Stem cell-based therapies exhibit profound therapeutic potential for treating various human diseases, including cancer. Among the cell types that can be used for this purpose, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as promising source of stem cells in personalized cell-based therapies. The inherent tumor-tropic property of MSCs can be used to target cancer cells. Although the impacts of MSCs on tumor progression remain elusive, they have been genetically modified or engineered as targeted anticancer agents which could inhibit tumor growth by blocking different processes of tumor. In addition, there are close interactions between MSCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs). MSCs can regulate the growth of CSCs through paracrine mechanisms. This review aims to focus on the current knowledge about MSCs-based tumor therapies, the opportunities and challenges, as well as the prospective of its further clinical implications.
In recent years, stem cell therapy has become a very promising and advanced scientific research topic. The development of treatment methods has evoked great expectations. This paper is a review focused on the discovery of different stem cells and the potential therapies based on these cells. The genesis of stem cells is followed by laboratory steps of controlled stem cell culturing and derivation. Quality control and teratoma formation assays are important procedures in assessing the properties of the stem cells tested. Derivation methods and the utilization of culturing media are crucial to set proper environmental conditions for controlled differentiation. Among many types of stem tissue applications, the use of graphene scaffolds and the potential of extracellular vesicle-based therapies require attention due to their versatility. The review is summarized by challenges that stem cell therapy must overcome to be accepted worldwide. A wide variety of possibilities makes this cutting edge therapy a turning point in modern medicine, providing hope for untreatable diseases.