The progression and development of congestive heart failure is still considered a large problem despite the existence of revascularization therapies and optimal, state-of-the-art medical services. An acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a major cause of congestive heart failure, so researchers are investigating techniques to complement primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or thrombolytic therapy to prevent congestive heart failure after AMI.
Methods Twenty-six patients with successful PCI for acute ST-segment elevation anterior wall myocardial infarction were assigned to either a control group (n = 12) or a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) group (n = 14). The control group received optimum post-infarction treatment, and the BMSC group received intracoronary delivery of autologous BMSC at 1 month after PCI with the optimum medical treatment. The primary endpoint was a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) change from baseline to 4-month follow-up, as determined via myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).
The global LVEF at baseline (determined 3.5 ± 1.5 days after PCI) was 35.4 ± 3.0% in the control group and 33.6 ± 4.7% in the BM-MSC group. BMSC transfer enhanced left ventricular systolic function primarily in anterior wall myocardial segments adjacent to the LAD infarcted area. Four months later, via SPECT, global LVEF had increased by 4.8 ± 1.9% in the control group and 8.8 ± 2.9% in the BM-MSC group (p = 0.031). The cell transfer did not increase the risk of adverse clinical events, in-stent restenosis, or proarrhythmic effects.
The echocardiographic evaluation also revealed a significant increase in the LVEF value from baseline to the 4-month (9.0 ± 4.7 and 5.3 ± 2.6%, p = 0.023) and 12-month (9.9 ± 5.2% and 6.5 ± 2.7%, p = 0.048) follow up in the BM-MSC group but not in the control group. Intracoronary administration of autologous BM-MSC was tolerable and safe with significant improvement in LVEF at 4-month (SPECT and echocardiography result) and 12-month (echocardiography result only) follow-up in patients with anterior AMI.