In this prospective, randomised study, 219 patients with decompensated HBV-related liver cirrhosis were divided into: control group (n = 111) and cord blood mesenchymal stem cell infusion group (n = 108). Both groups were followed up for a follow-up period of 7 years (October 2010 to October 2017). Specifically, patients in the control group received only conventional therapy while patients in the other group received three infusions of mesenchymal stem cells from cord tissue at four-week intervals. During the follow-up period of 13 to 75 months, a significantly higher survival rate was observed in the treated group than in the control group. Mesenchymal stem treatment strongly improved liver function as detected by serum albumin levels, prothrombin activity, cholinesterase levels and total bilirubin level during 48 weeks of follow-up. Interestingly, no side effects or treatment-related complications were detected in patients who received mesenchymal stem cells. As reported by the authors, transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells from cord tissue is not only well tolerated but also able to significantly improve long-term survival and liver function in patients with decompensated HBV-related liver cirrhosis.